Different Land Covers

Forest: Sweden is dominated by forests and this is reflected by three of the stations being placed in forested areas:
Svartberget (boreal pine),
Norunda (boreal pine and spruce), and
Hyltemossa (temperate spruce).

Wetlands are quite common throughout the Nordic countries, and therefore two stations are placed in such environments:
Abisko-Stordalen (sub-arctic fen) and
Degerö (boreal fen).

Agriculture: One site is located in an agricultural setting:

Ocean: Finally, one site covers the oceanic part:

ICOS Sweden Network

ICOS Sweden stationmap Abisko-Stordalen Svartberget Degerö Norunda Lanna Östergarnsholm Hyltemossa To get more information about a specific site click on the station name.

Different Station Types

Atmospheric stations deliver primarily data on greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. For common gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), the measurements take place continuously. Other gases, such as CO and N2O, will be measured periodically. Within ICOS Sweden are these: Hyltemossa, Norunda, and Svartberget.

Ecosystem stations provide primarily data on greenhouse gas concentrations and fluxes, as well as latent and sensible heat fluxes. In addition, several meteorological and soil parameters are measured. Furthermore, data on other ecosystem parameters will be collected periodically. Within ICOS Sweden are these: Abisko-Stordalen, Degerö, Hyltemossa, Lanna, Norunda, and Svartberget.

Oceanic stations measure CO2 and other gases from ocean surface waters and the near-surface atmosphere. Within ICOS Sweden is this: Östergarnsholm.
Continuous measurements within ICOS Sweden
Instruments Atmospheric Stations Ecosystem Stations Oceanic Stations
 air temperature    Details
 air pressure    Details
 carbon dioxide (CO2)    Details
 carbon monoxide (CO)    Details
 ground water level    Details
 methane (CH4) (not in forest ecosystem stations)    Details
 net radiation    Details
 nitrous oxide (N2O) (not in forests)
 partial pressure of CO2 in the water
 phenology camera
 PPFD    Details
 precipitation    Details
 snow height    Details
 soil heat flux    Details
 soil temperature    Details
 soil water content    Details
 solar radiation    Details
 sunshine duration    Details
 surface temperature    Details
 terrestrial radiation    Details
 trunk temperature (only in forests)    Details
 water vapor (H2O)    Details
 wave properties
 wind vector    Details